TLR based therapeutics

Aisling Dunne, Neil A Marshall, Kingston H G Mills
Current Opinion in Pharmacology 2011, 11 (4): 404-11
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in innate immune responses to infection. Binding of agonists to TLRs promotes maturation of antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, which in turn directs the induction of adaptive immune responses. For this reason TLR agonists are being exploited as vaccine adjuvants for infectious disease or cancer and as therapeutics against tumors. However TLR agonists also promote inflammatory cytokine production and have a pathogenic role in many diseases with an inflammatory basis, including autoimmune diseases. Consequently, antibodies to TLRs and inhibitors of TLR signalling pathways have considerable potential as therapeutics for inflammatory disorders. Some have shown to be efficacious in pre-clinical models, and have now entered clinical trials.

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