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Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and islet cell antigen 512/IA-2 autoantibodies in relation to human leukocyte antigen class II DR and DQ alleles and haplotypes in type 1 diabetes mellitus

Mouna Stayoussef, Jihen Benmansour, Fayza A Al-Jenaidi, Hichem B Said, Chiheb B Rayana, Touhami Mahjoub, Wassim Y Almawi
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI 2011, 18 (6): 990-3
21490167
The frequencies of autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and islet cell antigen (ICA) 512/IA-2 (512/IA-2) are functions of the specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). We investigated the association of HLA class II (DR and DQ) alleles and haplotypes with the presence of GAD and IA-2 autoantibodies in T1D. Autoantibodies were tested in 88 Tunisian T1D patients and 112 age- and gender-matched normoglycemic control subjects by enzyme immunoassay. Among T1D patients, mean anti-GAD antibody titers were higher in the DRB1*030101 allele (P < 0.001), together with the DRB1*030101/DQB1*0201 (P < 0.001) and DRB1*040101/DQB1*0302 (P = 0.002) haplotypes, while lower anti-GAD titers were associated with the DRB1*070101 (P = 0.001) and DRB1*110101 (P < 0.001) alleles and DRB1*070101/DQB1*0201 (P = 0.001) and DRB1*110101/DQB1*030101 (P = 0.001) haplotypes. Mean anti-IA-2 antibody titers were higher in the DRB1*040101 allele (P = 0.007) and DRB1*040101/DQB1*0302 (P = 0.001) haplotypes but were lower in the DRB1*110101 allele (P = 0.010) and the DRB1*110101 (P < 0.001) and DRB1*110101/DQB1*030101 (P = 0.025) haplotypes. Multinomial regression analysis confirmed the positive association of DRB1*030101 and the negative association of DRB1*110101 and DQB1*030101, along with the DRB1*070101/DQB1*0201 and DRB1*110101/DQB1*030101 haplotypes, with anti-GAD levels. In contrast, only the DRB1*040101/DQB1*0302 haplotype was positively associated with altered anti-IA-2 titers. Increased GAD65 and IA-2 antibody positivity is differentially associated with select HLA class II alleles and haplotypes, confirming the heterogeneous nature of T1D.

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