Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
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Novel evidence-based colchicine dose-reduction algorithm to predict and prevent colchicine toxicity in the presence of cytochrome P450 3A4/P-glycoprotein inhibitors.

OBJECTIVE: Drug-drug interactions can limit the safety of colchicine for treating rheumatic diseases. Seven separate drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies were performed to elucidate the in vivo effects of concomitant treatment with colchicine and known inhibitors of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4)/P-glycoprotein (cyclosporine, ketoconazole, ritonavir, clarithromycin, azithromycin, verapamil ER [extended release]), and diltiazem ER) on the pharmacokinetics of colchicine. The objective was to develop colchicine-dosing algorithms with improved safety.

METHODS: All studies were open-label, non-randomized, single-center, one-sequence, two-period DDI experiments, using two 0.6-mg doses of colchicine, separated by a minimum 14-day washout period, followed by administration of the approved on-label regimen of known CYP3A4/P-glycoprotein inhibitors. Plasma concentrations of colchicine, but not the reference CYP3A4/P-glycoprotein inhibitors, were determined, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated.

RESULTS: The ratios of the maximum concentration and area under the curve from time 0 to infinity for colchicine plus CYP3A4/P-glycoprotein inhibitors versus colchicine alone were >125% across all studies, with the exception of studies involving azithromycin. Significant DDIs were present when single doses of colchicine were coadministered with most of the selected CYP3A4/P-glycoprotein inhibitors. Recommended colchicine dose reductions of 33-66% for the treatment of acute gout and 50-75% for prophylaxis were calculated for concomitant therapy with each agent, with the exception of no dose adjustment when colchicine is used in combination with azithromycin.

CONCLUSION: These studies provide quantitative evidence regarding drug interactions and necessary adjustments in the dose of colchicine if colchicine treatment is continued during therapy with multiple CYP3A4/P-glycoprotein inhibitors. We demonstrated the need for specific reductions in the dose of colchicine when it is used in combination with 2 broadly prescribed calcium channel blockers (verapamil ER and diltiazem ER) and that the dose of colchicine does not need to be adjusted when it is used in combination with azithromycin.

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