Antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity of CLM3, a novel multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor, alone and in combination with SN-38 on endothelial and cancer cells

Guido Bocci, Anna Fioravanti, Concettina La Motta, Paola Orlandi, Bastianina Canu, Teresa Di Desidero, Laura Mugnaini, Stefania Sartini, Sandro Cosconati, Rita Frati, Alessandro Antonelli, Piero Berti, Paolo Miccoli, Federico Da Settimo, Romano Danesi
Biochemical Pharmacology 2011 June 1, 81 (11): 1309-16

AIMS: To demonstrate the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of the novel pyrazolopyrimidine derivative multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor CLM3, alone and in combination with SN-38 (the active metabolite of irinotecan), on endothelial and tumor cells and to show its mechanism of action.

METHODS: Proliferation and apoptotic assays were performed on microvascular endothelial (HMVEC-d) and lung (A549) and thyroid cancer (8305C, TT) cell lines exposed to CLM3 and to the simultaneous combination with SN38 for 72h. Cell-based phospho-VEGFR-2, phospho-EGFR and phospho-RET inhibition assays were performed and ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation were quantified by ELISA kits. Cyclin D1 gene expression was performed with real-time PCR and cyclin D1 intracellular concentrations were measured by ELISA.

RESULTS: A strong effect on antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activity was found with the CLM3 on endothelial and cancer cells, synergistically enhanced by SN38. Phospho-VEGFR-2, phospho-EGFR and phospho-RET levels significantly decreased after CLM3 treatments in activated endothelial and cancer cells; ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation were significantly inhibited by lower concentrations of the pyrazolopyrimidine drug in endothelial cells if compared to cancer cells. Moreover, CLM3 treatment greatly inhibited the expression of the cyclin D1 gene in endothelial and cancer cells, decreasing the cyclin D1 protein intracellular concentration.

CONCLUSIONS: The pyrazolopyrimidine derivative CLM3 demonstrated a highly significant and promising antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity, alone and in combination with SN-38, for activated endothelial and cancer cells. These effects are mainly due to its inhibition of phosphorylation of VEGFR-2, EGFR and RET tyrosine kinases and their related signaling pathways.

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