Analysis of antimicrobial resistance genes detected in multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated from food animals

LaShanda M Glenn, Rebecca L Lindsey, Joseph F Frank, Richard J Meinersmann, Mark D Englen, Paula J Fedorka-Cray, Jonathan G Frye
Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease 2011, 17 (3): 407-18
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is the most prevalent penta-resistant serovar isolated from animals by the U.S. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Penta-resistant isolates are often resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. To investigate MDR in Salmonella Typhimurium (including variant 5-), one isolate each from cattle, poultry, and swine with at least the ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline phenotype were selected for each year from 1997 to 2007 (n = 33) for microarray analysis of antimicrobial resistance, incompatibility IncA/C, and HI1 plasmid genes. Cluster analysis based on these data separated 31 of the isolates into two groups A and B (15 and 16 isolates, respectively). Isolates in group A were phage type DT104 or U302 and were mostly swine isolates (7/15). Genes detected included intI1, bla(PSE-1), floR, aadA, sulI, tet(G), and tetR, which are often found in Salmonella Genomic Island I. Isolates in group B had numerous IncA/C plasmid genes detected and were mostly cattle isolates (9/16). Genes detected included bla(CMY-2), floR, aac(3), aadA, aphA1, strA, strB, sulI, sulII, dfrA, dhf, tet(A)(B)(C)(D), and tetR, which are often found on MDR-AmpC IncA/C plasmids. The IncA/C replicon was also detected in all group B isolates. The two remaining isolates did not cluster with any others and both had many HI1 plasmid genes detected. Linkage disequilibrium analysis detected significant associations between plasmid replicon type, phage type, and animal source. These data suggest that MDR in Salmonella Typhimurium is associated with DT104/Salmonella Genomic Island I or IncA/C MDR-AmpC encoding plasmids and these genetic elements have persisted throughout the study period.

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