[Management of bradykinin-mediated angioedema]

B Floccard, J Crozon, T Rimmelé, A Vulliez, B Coppere, V Chamouard, I Boccon-Gibod, L Bouillet, B Allaouchiche
Annales Françaises D'anesthèsie et de Rèanimation 2011, 30 (7-8): 578-88

OBJECTIVES: Present the clinical signs of bradykinin-mediated angioedema, a disease little known to intensive care anaesthesiologists, and develop their scientific basis with recent data on management in emergency and perioperative care.

DATA SOURCES: International recommendations and recent general reviews. Data collection was performed using the Medline database with the keyword: angioedema.

STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Research studies published during the last 10 years were reviewed. Relevant clinical information was extracted and discussed.

DATA SYNTHESIS: Angioedema is a clinical syndrome characterized by episodes of transitory recurrent submucosal and subcutaneous oedema, called attacks. During an attack, the oedema may be localized at the level of the skin and/or ENT and digestive tract mucosa. This syndrome is not due to an allergic reaction. It is related to a C1 complement inhibitor deficiency or an increase in factor XII resulting in the excessive release of bradykinin, which leads to capillary permeability. There are hereditary and acquired forms, notably associated with the use of ACE inhibitors and sartans. This rare disease should be recognized by anaesthesiologists and intensive care and emergency physicians because, in the absence of specific treatment, it can be life-threatening due to the appearance of laryngeal oedema. In addition, there is a risk that the patient may have an attack during the perioperatory period, due to surgical trauma. International recommendations exist, and there are new molecules available in France. For moderate attacks, treatment is based on tranexamic acid. For hereditary forms, according to the localization and gravity of the attacks, emergency treatment is based on the use of Icatibant, a bradykinin B2 receptor inhibitor, and C1 inhibitor concentrate. For pregnant women and acquired forms, C1 inhibitor concentrate is the treatment of reference. Antalgic and perfusion treatments should not be neglected, and should be modified as a function of clinical signs. High-risk situations (perioperatory period, birthing, dental care) should be identified and short-term prophylaxis put in place before any procedure that may trigger an attack. Algorithms are proposed for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of attacks. Recommendations exist for during childbirth, in which case C1 inhibitor concentrate should be used.

CONCLUSION: Bradykinin-mediated angioedema should be evoked in the case of recurrent and transitory oedema. Emergency management has evolved thanks to the commercialization of new molecules. Prevention of attacks during surgery and for during childbirth is important. The availability of C1 inhibitor concentrate in sufficient doses should be verified prior to the procedure. A multi-site reference centre (CREAK) has been created to help clinicians manage this disease. Patients with this disease should be identified in emergency departments. Health establishments, which cannot all have emergency stocks, should set up procedures for rapid provision or the transfer of patients to reference sites.

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