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JOURNAL ARTICLE

The Circadian Energy Scale (CIRENS): two simple questions for a reliable chronotype measurement based on energy

Gustavo L Ottoni, Eduardo Antoniolli, Diogo R Lara
Chronobiology International 2011, 28 (3): 229-37
21452918
This study presents the Circadian Energy Scale (CIRENS), a very short and simple chronotype measurement tool based on energy. The CIRENS consists of two introspective questions about the usual energy level (very low, low, moderate, high, or very high, scored 1 to 5) in the morning and in the evening. The difference between energy level scores (-4 to 4) felt by respondents in the evening and morning defines the chronotype score and classification. A concurrent validity analysis of the CIRENS with the widely used Horne and Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) was conducted using a sample of 225 college students, and with MSFsc, a sleep-based chronotype assessment tool based on the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ), using a sample of 34,530 subjects (18-83 yrs, 27% males). This large sample was collected in a Web survey for behavioral correlates of the CIRENS with variables previously associated with chronotype differences. The correlation of the CIRENS chronotype score was r = -.70 with the MEQ and r = .32 with the MSFsc. CIRENS chronotype scores declined with age and were not affected by sex. Both CIRENS and MSFsc chronotype scores were related to differences in tobacco, caffeine, and cola soft-drink consumption (all higher in evening types). The CIRENS provides a simple chronotype index and a measure of absolute energy throughout the day and seems to be a reliable chronotype assessment tool that may be useful both clinically and for large-scale studies.

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