Growth hormone reduces tissue damage in rat ovaries subjected to torsion and detorsion: biochemical and histopathologic evaluation

Murat Yigiter, Zekai Halici, Fehmi Odabasoglu, Osman Nuri Keles, Fadime Atalay, Bunyami Unal, Ahmet Bedii Salman
European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology 2011, 157 (1): 94-100

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of growth hormone (GH) as an antioxidant and tissue-protective agent and analyse the biochemical and histopathological changes in rat ovaries due to experimental ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion injury.

STUDY DESIGN: Forty-eight adult female rats were randomly divided into eight groups. In Group 1, a period of bilateral ovarian ischemia was applied. In Groups 2 and 3, 1 and 2 mg/kg of GH was administered, and 30 min later, bilateral ovarian ischemia was applied (after a 3-h period of ischemia, both ovaries were surgically removed). Group 4 received a 3-h period of ischemia followed by 3h of reperfusion. Groups 5 and 6 received 1 and 2 mg/kg of GH, respectively, 2.5 h after the induction of ischemia. At the end of a 3-h period of ischemia, bilateral vascular clips were removed, and 3h of reperfusion continued. Group 7 received a sham operation plus 2mg/kg of GH. Group 8 received a sham operation only. After the experiments, superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase activity and levels of glutathione and lipid peroxidation were determined, and histopathological changes were examined in all rat ovarian tissue.

RESULTS: Ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion decreased superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels in ovarian tissue, but increased lipid peroxidation levels and myeloperoxidase activity significantly in comparison to the sham group. The 1 and 2 mg/kg doses of GH before ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion decreased lipid peroxidation levels and myeloperoxidase activity in the experimental groups. The administration of GH before ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion treatments also increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels. The histopathological findings also suggested a protective role of GH in ischemia/reperfusion injury. That is, ovarian tissues in the ischemia groups showed histopathological changes, such as haemorrhage, cell degeneration, and necrotic and apoptotic cells, but these changes in the GH groups were lesser. Moreover, in the ischemia/reperfusion groups, acute inflammatory processes--such as neutrophil adhesion and migration, apoptotic and degenerative cells, stromal oedema and haemorrhage--were present. However, the ovarian tissues of the IR+GH (1 mg) group had minimal apoptotic cells, and the IR+GH (2 mg) group had no apoptotic cells. In addition, the general ovarian histological structures of these groups were similar to those of the healthy control group.

CONCLUSIONS: The administration of GH is protective against ischemia and/or ischemia/reperfusion-induced ovarian damage. This protective effect can be attributed to the antioxidant properties of GH.

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