Effects of postbariatric surgery weight loss on adipokines and metabolic parameters: comparison of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy—a prospective randomized trial

Bettina Woelnerhanssen, Ralph Peterli, Robert E Steinert, Thomas Peters, Yves Borbély, Christoph Beglinger
Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 2011, 7 (5): 561-8

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) lead to rapid improvement in insulin sensitivity even before weight loss occurs. Adipokines are closely linked to obesity and insulin resistance. To date, it is unclear whether the different anatomic changes of the various bariatric procedures have different effects on hormones of adipocyte origin. In the present prospective, randomized study, we compared the 1-year follow-up results of LRYGB and LSG concerning weight loss, metabolic control, and fasting adipokine levels.

METHODS: Of 23 nondiabetic morbidly obese patients, 12 were randomized to LRYGB and 11 to LSG. The patients were investigated before and 1 week, 3 months, and 12 months after surgery. The fasting levels of glucose, insulin, lipids, and adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, and fibroblast growth factor-21) were analyzed.

RESULTS: The body weight decreased markedly (P <.001) after either procedure (percentage of weight loss 16.4% ± 1.3%, 24.8% ± 1.7%, and 34.5% ± 2.7% after LRYGB and 13.1% ± 1.1%, 20.7% ± 1.5%, and 27.9% ± 2.6% after LSG at 2, 6, and 12 mo, respectively). The Homeostasis Model Assessment Index declined from 8.0 ± 1.5 preoperatively to 2.9 ± .2 at 12 months after LRYGB and from 7.5 ± 1.7 preoperatively to 3.3 ± .3 at 12 months after LSG. The lipid profiles were normalized. The concentrations of circulating leptin levels decreased by almost 50% as early as 1 week postoperatively and continued to decrease until 12 months postoperatively. Adiponectin increased progressively. The fibroblast growth factor-21 levels did not change over time. No difference was found between the LRYGB and LSG groups.

CONCLUSION: Both procedures led to significant weight loss associated with the resolution of the metabolic syndrome. The serum leptin levels decreased and adiponectin increased with weight loss, paralleled by improved insulin sensitivity.

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