Outcome and complications in peritoneal dialysis patients: a five-year single center experience

Jamal S Alwakeel, Abdulkareem Alsuwaida, Akram Askar, Nawaz Memon, Saira Usama, Mohammed Alghonaim, Niaz A Feraz, Iqbal Hamid Shah, Hamsaveni Wilson
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation 2011, 22 (2): 245-51
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is one of the modes of renal replacement therapy being utilized for the management of end-stage renal failure in King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, for more than two decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate the complications related to PD as well as its outcome in patients on this mode of therapy during the period between January 2004 and December 2008. There were 72 patients included in the study, of whom 43 were females. The average age was 50.7 ± 30.1 years (14-88 years). Diabetes was the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) seen in 40.2% of the study patients. Twenty-eight patients (38.9%) were on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and 44 (61.1%) were on automated PD (nocturnal intermittent peritoneal dialysis, NIPD or continuous cycler peritoneal dialysis, CCPD). The mean duration on PD of the study patients was 25.5 ± 16.58 months (1-60 months). The peritonitis rate was one episode per 24.51 patient-months or one episode per 2.04 patient-years. The incidence of peritonitis per person-year was calculated as 0.42. The leading causative agent for peritonitis was Staphylococcus (32%). Exit-site infection (ESI) rate was one episode per 56.21 patient-months. The incidence of ESI was 0.214 per person-years. The most common infective organism for ESI was Pseudomonas aeru-ginosa (58.8%). At the end of 5 years, 35 patients were continuing on PD, 13 patients were shifted to hemodialysis (HD), nine patients underwent renal transplantation, and six patients were transferred to other centers. Among the 13 patients who were shifted to HD, four patients had refractory peritonitis, four others had catheter malfunction, three patients had inadequate clearance on PD and two patients had lack of compliance. A total of 11 patients died during the study period, giving an overall mortality rate of 15.27% for the five-year period. Our study suggests that there has been considerable improvement in overall outcome and mortality in patients on PD. Additionally, a marked reduction in the infectious and non-infectious complications was noted with the peritonitis and ESI rates in our center being comparable to other studies and international guidelines.

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