[Natural occurrence of masked deoxynivalenol and multi-mycotoxins in cereals from China harvested in 2007 and 2008]

Feng-qin Li, Chuan-chuan Yu, Bing Shao, Wei Wang, Hong-xia Yu
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine] 2011, 45 (1): 57-63

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the natural occurrence of masked deoxynivalenol (DON-3-G) and other multi-mycotoxins in cereals from parts of China.

METHODS: A total of 446 corn and wheat samples harvested in 2007 and 2008 collected from Henan, Hebei, Guangxi, Anhui, Sichuan, Chongqing and Jiangsu provinces were analyzed for DON-3-G and other multi-mycotoxins (including deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), nivalenol (NIV), et al) by UPLC-MS/MS.

RESULTS: Corn and wheat samples were mainly contaminated by DON and its derivatives as well as ZEN.88% (169/192) of wheat samples were positive for DON (range: 1.5 - 590.7 µg/kg; median: 30.8 µg/kg); 22.9% (44/192) of wheat samples were contaminated with ZEN (range: 1.7 - 3425.0 µg/kg; median: 8.0 µg/kg) and six samples contained ZEN concentration higher than the ZEN tolerance limit of 60 µg/kg. DON was detected in 50.5% (103/204) corn samples (range: 1.6 - 4374.4 µg/kg; median: 94.9 µg/kg); Seven samples contained DON exceeding the tolerance limit of 1000 µg/kg for DON. Additionally, ZEN was found in 41.7% (85/204) corn samples with the concentration between 1.6 µg/kg and 4808.7 µg/kg (median: 48.5 µg/kg) and there were 37 corn samples with ZEN level in the excess of tolerance limit for ZEN (60 µg/kg). DON-3-G was detected in corn and wheat samples for the first time in China with the median level of 21.4 µg/kg and 34.6 µg/kg for wheat and corn, respectively. Wheat was more heavily contaminated with DON-3-G than both 3-acetyl-DON (3-A-DON, median: 4.1 µg/kg) and 15-acetyl-DON (15-A-DON, median: 3.1 µg/kg) (t values were 5.111 and 5.966, respectively, both P values < 0.01). While, the level of 15-A-DON (median: 48.6 µg/kg) in corn was higher than 3-A-DON (median: 6.8 µg/kg) (t = -3.579, P < 0.01). The concentration of DON, DON-3-G, 3-A-DON, 15-A-DON and ZEN in corn were higher than that in wheat (Z values were -3.492, -1.960, -2.467, -8.711 and -6.272, respectively, all P values < 0.05). Wheat (median: 29.0 µg/kg) contained higher NIV in comparison with corn (median: 18.2 µg/kg, Z = -2.086, P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Wheat and corn samples from parts of China were contaminated with multi-mycotoxins and DON was the predominant;in comparison of wheat, corn was more heavily contaminated with DON, DON-3-G, 3-A-DON, 15-A-DON and ZEN.

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