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High prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and its association with renal function among nondialysis chronic kidney disease patients in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects one of five adults in the general population. Although a high prevalence of OSA has been reported among dialysis patients, the association between nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) and OSA has not been fully investigated. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of OSA among nondialysis CKD patients in Japan and the association between renal function and OSA.

DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Consecutive nondialysis CKD patients hospitalized mainly for CKD educational program, regardless of their sleep complaints, were enrolled. The diagnosis of OSA and its severity were measured using a type 3 portable monitor.

RESULTS: Overall (n=100, 68.0% male, median age 66.5 years, body mass index [BMI] 23.1 kg/m(2), estimated GFR [eGFR] 28.5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), 65% were diagnosed as OSA: mild OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] 5.0 to 14.9) in 32%, moderate OSA (AHI 15.0 to 29.9) in 25%, and severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30.0) in 8%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that a 10-ml/min per 1.73 m(2) decrease in eGFR was associated with a 42% increased odds of OSA after adjustment for age, BMI, and diabetes mellitus. Moreover, in a generalized linear model, eGFR was inversely correlated with AHI after adjustment for covariates.

CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated a high prevalence of OSA among nondialysis CKD patients in Japan and that the increased risk of OSA was significantly associated with decreased GFR among these patients. Further investigations are warranted to determine OSA's direct influence on cardiovascular disease.

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