JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

High burden of antimicrobial resistance in Asia

Shio-Shin Jean, Po-Ren Hsueh
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2011, 37 (4): 291-5
21382699
Antimicrobial resistance is associated with high mortality rates and high medical costs. Marked variations in the resistance profiles of bacterial and fungal pathogens as well as the quality of public hygiene have had a considerable impact on the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents in Asian countries. In Asia, one of the epicentres of antimicrobial drug resistance, there is an alarming number of antibiotic-resistant species, including penicillin- and erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae, multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (particularly mediated by CTX-M-9, CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-15), New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, MDR Salmonella enterica serotypes Choleraesuis and Typhi, carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (OXA-58 and OXA-23 carbapenemases) and azole-resistant Candida glabrata. A few clones of MDR A. baumannii and hospital-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been widely disseminated in hospital settings in Asia, and K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae strains have been widely distributed in China. In addition, the emergence of extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has illustrated the need for regular monitoring of resistance profiles of clinical isolates as well as the deliberative use of fluoroquinolones. Continuous surveillance of resistance data from clinical isolates as well as implementation of strict infection control policies in healthcare settings are required to mitigate the progression of antimicrobial resistance.

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