Psychometric properties of the Gotland Scale for Depression in Italian psychiatric inpatients and its utility in the prediction of suicide risk

Marco Innamorati, Maurizio Pompili, Xenia Gonda, Mario Amore, Gianluca Serafini, Cinzia Niolu, David Lester, Wolfgang Rutz, Zoltan Rihmer, Paolo Girardi
Journal of Affective Disorders 2011, 132 (1): 99-103

BACKGROUND: Rutz has postulated a "male depressive syndrome" measured by the Gotland Scale of Male Depression (GSMD). The aim of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the GSMD in a sample of male and female psychiatric inpatients.

METHODS: The sample was composed of 326 Italian inpatients who completed the GSMD and the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS).

RESULTS: Our results indicated that all the items of the GSMD, except item #13, were highly interrelated, and that the first 12 items of the GSMD may be considered a homogeneous measure of depression. Furthermore, GSMD scores did not differ by sex. The GSMD had good convergent validity with the BHS and was useful in categorizing individuals admitted for a suicide attempt committed in the last 48h vs. those who had not.

LIMITATIONS: The study was retrospective in nature and did not assess the ability of the GSMD for predicting future suicidal behavior.

CONCLUSIONS: The GSMD may be considered to be a valid instrument for measuring non-typical ("suicidality-related") symptoms of depression in both male and female patients.


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