JOURNAL ARTICLE

Vitamin K enhancement of sorafenib-mediated HCC cell growth inhibition in vitro and in vivo

Gang Wei, Meifang Wang, Terry Hyslop, Ziqiu Wang, Brian I Carr
International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer 2010 December 15, 127 (12): 2949-58
21351273
The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is the first oral agent to show activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Apoptosis has been shown to be induced in HCC by several agents, including sorafenib as well as by the naturally occurring K vitamins (VKs). As few nontoxic agents have activity against HCC growth, we evaluated the activity of sorafenib and VKs, both independently and together on the growth of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. We found that when VK was combined with sorafenib, the concentration of sorafenib required for growth inhibition was substantially reduced. Conversely, VK enhanced sorafenib effects in several HCC cell lines on growth inhibition. Growth could be inhibited at doses of VK plus sorafenib that were ineffective with either agent alone, using vitamins K1, K2 and K5. Combination of VK1 plus sorafenib induced apoptosis on FACS, TUNEL staining and caspase activation. Phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) levels were decreased as was myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1), an ERK target. Sorafenib alone inhibited growth of transplantable HCC in vivo. At subeffective sorafenib doses in vivo, addition of VK1 caused major tumor regression, with decreased phospho-ERK and Mcl-1 staining. Thus, combination of VK1 plus sorafenib strongly induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in rodent and human HCC and inhibited the RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/ERK pathway. VK1 alone activated PKA, a mediator of inhibitory Raf phosphorylation. Thus, each agent can antagonize Raf: sorafenib as a direct inhibitor and VK1 through inhibitory Raf phosphorylation. As both agents are available for human use, the combination has potential for improving sorafenib effects in HCC.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
21351273
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"