JOURNAL ARTICLE

FIGO classification system (PALM-COEIN) for causes of abnormal uterine bleeding in nongravid women of reproductive age

Malcolm G Munro, Hilary O D Critchley, Michael S Broder, Ian S Fraser
International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 2011, 113 (1): 3-13
21345435
There is general inconsistency in the nomenclature used to describe abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), in addition to a plethora of potential causes-several of which may coexist in a given individual. It seems clear that the development of consistent and universally accepted nomenclature is a step toward rectifying this unsatisfactory circumstance. Another requirement is the development of a classification system, on several levels, for the causes of AUB, which can be used by clinicians, investigators, and even patients to facilitate communication, clinical care, and research. This manuscript describes an ongoing process designed to achieve these goals, and presents for consideration the PALM-COEIN (polyp; adenomyosis; leiomyoma; malignancy and hyperplasia; coagulopathy; ovulatory dysfunction; endometrial; iatrogenic; and not yet classified) classification system for AUB, which has been approved by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Executive Board as a FIGO classification system.

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