JOURNAL ARTICLE

[Hemophagocytic syndrome in children with different underlying conditions]

Magdalena Cwiklińska, Małgorzata Czogała, Walentyna Balwierz, Małgorzata Hnatko-Kołacz, Angelina Moryl-Bujakowska, Iwona Malinowska, Małgorzata Sładek, Maria Wieczorek, Krzysztof Fyderek, Michał Matysiak, Monika Rygielska, Iwona Sierhej
Przegla̧d Lekarski 2010, 67 (6): 430-5
21344776
Hemophagocytic syndrome (HS) is a life-threatening condition of hyperinflammation. Main symptoms are: prolonged fever, cytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, hemophagocytosis, hyperferritinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypofibrinogenemia. Primary genetic form and secondary HS associated with infections, malignancies or autoimmune disorders can be distinguished. Untreated HS in most cases leads to death. We analyzed retrospectively 7 cases of HS in children (3 girls, 4 boys; aged 10 days -14 years) treated in 3 different pediatric centers from 2004 to 2009. In 3 cases HS was associated with infections (EBV, CMV, Bacillus Calmette Guerin - BCG), in 1 child with non-Hodgkin anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), in 1 patients probably with side effect of antiepileptic drug. In 2 cases cause of HS remained unknown. Fever, hepatomegaly, pan- or bicytopenia and hyperferritinemia were present in all children. In addition, splenomegaly was noted in 6 cases, hemophagocytosis in 6 children, impaired function or decreased number of NK cells in 4 cases, hypofibrino-genemia in 5 and hypotriglyceridemia in 4 patients. Among other symptoms and signs we observed: lymphadenopathy, hepatic failure, oedema, rash, neurological symptoms, increased level of LDH and inflammatory markers. In one child acute pancreatitis occurred. Among others, antibiotics, antiviral and immunosuppressive drugs were used in therapy. HLH-2004 protocol was applied in 4 cases. Patient with ALCL was treated with chemotherapy and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Four patients are alive, 2 died because of HS, child with ALCL died because of generalized infection in peritrans-plantation period. In case of prolonged fever, splenomegaly and cytopenia diagnosis of HS should be considered. Following tests are recommended: complete blood count, ferritin, triglycerides, fibrinogen, bone marrow aspiration and NK cell assessment. Patients should be also screened for infections and malignancies. Early diagnosis of HS and underlying condition is crucial to start lifesaving therapy.

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