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The role of metabolic and haemodynamic factors in podocyte injury in diabetes

Nicole Stieger, Kirstin Worthmann, Mario Schiffer
Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews 2011, 27 (3): 207-15
21309047
Podocyte loss is a common feature in human diabetes as well as in experimental diabetes in rodents. Almost all components of the diabetic milieu lead to serious podocyte stress, driving the cells towards cell cycle arrest and hypertrophy, detachment and apoptosis. Common pathway components induced by high glucose and advanced glycation end-products are reactive oxygen species, cyclin-dependent kinases (p27(Kip1)) and transforming growth factor-beta. In addition, mechanical stresses by stretch or shear forces, insulin deficiency or insulin resistance are independent components resulting in podocyte apoptosis and detachment. In this review, we discuss the common pathways leading to podocyte death as well as novel pathways and concepts of podocyte dedifferentiation and detachment that influence the progression of diabetic glomerulopathy.

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