JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Management of urinary tract infections associated with nephrolithiasis.

Nephrolithiasis is a common clinical entity, and the incidence of renal stones appears to be increasing in the United States. Infection with uropathogens that produce urease can lead to the development of stones (infection stones), which serve as a continued source of recurrent infection and can lead to chronic kidney disease. Other than treating infection, medical management has little role in the treatment of infection stones; complete eradication of the stones with percutaneous nephrolithotomy or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is required. Stones of metabolic origin can cause obstruction in the ureter and predispose to the development of urinary tract infection (UTI). Recognizing obstruction and initiating prompt drainage of the collecting system is important in the successful management of nephrolithiasis complicated by UTI. These patients are often at high risk of infection with an antimicrobial-resistant pathogen, so careful consideration of antimicrobial therapy is required, especially for patients who present with severe sepsis.

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