Validation and modification of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale in Peruvian population

Edmundo Rosales-Mayor, Jorge Rey de Castro, Leandro Huayanay, Kenny Zagaceta
Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung 2012, 16 (1): 59-69

PURPOSE: The main purpose of this study was to develop a cross-cultural adaptation of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale for Peruvian population (ESS-VP) and to provide evidence of reliability and validity to this scale. We also modified the ESS-VP for non-driving Peruvian population (ESS-MPV).

METHODS: Participants were Peruvians between 18 and 65 years. Five-phase design: Translation and retranslation of the original scale; comprehension evaluation (n = 60); reliability or test-retest (n = 75); internal consistency and construct validity (n = 219); and change of sensibility (n = 36). Just as in the ESS-PV, the same procedure was applied to ESS-MPV except the first phase.

RESULTS: The ESS-PV and ESS-MPV had an adequate comprehension. They were reliable over time (test-retest), being better within a period of 2 weeks. They also had adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.790 and 0.789). Two factors were extracted in both scales, being only the first factor in which all items showed statistically significant loads. Both scales are sensitive to sleepiness change in patients with obstructive sleep apnea during treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: The ESS-VP and ESS-MPV, adapted to adult Peruvian population, are comparable to the original scale, reliable, valid, and change-sensitive. It is proposed that the ESS-MPV should be applied in Peruvian population who do not drive motorized vehicles.

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