Preoperative quantification of aortic valve stenosis: comparison of 64-slice computed tomography with transesophageal and transthoracic echocardiography and size of implanted prosthesis

Katarzyna Mizia-Stec, Piotr Pysz, Marek Jasiński, Tomasz Adamczyk, Agnieszka Drzewiecka-Gerber, Artur Chmiel, Michał Krejca, Andrzej Bochenek, Stanisław Woś, Maciej Sosnowski, Zbigniew Gąsior, Maria Trusz-Gluza, Michał Tendera
International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging 2012, 28 (2): 343-52
Precise measurements of aortic complex diameters are essential for preoperative examinations of patients with aortic stenosis (AS) scheduled for aortic valve (AV) replacement. We aimed to prospectively compare the accuracy of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) measurements of the AV complex and to analyze the role of the multi-modality aortic annulus diameter (AAd) assessment in the selection of the optimal prosthesis to be implanted in patients surgically treated for degenerative AS. 20 patients (F/M: 3/17; age: 69 ± 6.5 years) with severe degenerative AS were enrolled into the study. TTE, TEE and MSCT including AV calcium score (AVCS) assessment were performed in all patients. The values of AAd obtained in the long AV complex axis (TTE, TEE, MSCT) and in multiplanar perpendicular imaging (MSCT) were compared to the size of implanted prosthesis. The mean AAd was 24 ± 3.6 mm using TTE, 26 ± 4.2 mm using TEE, and 26.9 ± 3.2 in MSCT (P = 0.04 vs. TTE). The mean diameter of the left ventricle out-flow tract in TTE (19.9 ± 2.7 mm) and TEE (19.5 ± 2.7 mm) were smaller than in MSCT (24.9 ± 3.3 mm, P < 0.001 for both). The mean size of implanted prosthesis (22.2 ± 2.3 mm) was significantly smaller than the mean AAd measured by TTE (P = 0.0039), TEE (P = 0.0004), and MSCT (P < 0.0001). The implanted prosthesis size correlated significantly to the AAd: r = 0.603, P = 0.005 for TTE, r = 0.592, P = 0.006 for TEE, and r = 0.791, P < 0.001 for MSCT. Obesity and extensive valve calcification (AV calcium score ≥ 3177Ag.U.) were identified as potent factors that caused a deterioration of both TTE and MSCT performance. The accuracy of AAd measurements in TEE was only limited by AV calcification. In multivariate regression analysis the mean value of the minimum and maximum AAd obtained in MSCT-multiplanar perpendicular imaging was an independent factor (r = 0.802, P < 0.0001) predicting the size of implanted prosthesis. In patients with AS echocardiography remains the main diagnostics tool in clinical practice. MSCT as a 3-dimentional modality allows for accurate measurement of entire AV complex and facilitates optimal matching of prosthesis size.

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