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JOURNAL ARTICLE

The vaginal radical trachelectomy: an update of a series of 125 cases and 106 pregnancies

Marie Plante, Jean Gregoire, Marie-Claude Renaud, Michel Roy
Gynecologic Oncology 2011 May 1, 121 (2): 290-7
21255824

OBJECTIVE: To review our first consecutive 125 vaginal radical trachelectomies (VRT) to assess the oncologic, fertility and obstetrical outcomes.

METHODS: Data from our prospective database was used to identify all VRT planned between October 1991 to March 2010 in patients with early-stage cervical cancer (stages IA, IB and IIA). Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and Student t-test were used to compare baseline characteristics and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed and compared with the use of the log-rank test.

RESULTS: During the study period, 140 VRT were planned and 125 were performed. The median age of the patients was 31 and 75% were nulliparous. The majority of the lesions were stage IA2 (21%) or IB1 (69%) and 41% were grade 1. In terms of histology, 56% were squamous and 37% were adenocarcinomas. Vascular space invasion was present in 29% of cases, and 88.5% of the lesions measured ≤2cm. The mean follow-up was 93months (range: 4-225months). There were 6 recurrences (4.8%) and 2 deaths (1.6%) following VRT. The actuarial 5-year recurrence-free survival was 95.8% [95% CI: 0.90-0.98], whereas it was 79% [95% CI: 0.49-0.93] in the group where the VRT was abandoned (p=0.001). Higher tumor grade, LVSI and size >2cm appeared to be predictive of the risk of abandoning VRT (p=0.001, p=0.025 and p=0.03 respectively). Tumor size >2cm was statistically significantly associated with a higher risk of recurrence (p=0.001). In terms of obstetrical outcome, 58 women conceived a total of 106 pregnancies. The first and second trimester miscarriage rates were 20% and 3% respectively, and 77 (73%) of the pregnancies reached the third trimester, of which 58 (75%) delivered at term. Overall, 15 (13.5%) patients experienced fertility problems, 40% of which were due to cervical factor. Twelve (80%) were able to conceive, the majority with assisted reproductive technologies.

CONCLUSION: VRT is an oncologically safe procedure in well-selected patients with early-stage disease. Lesion size >2cm appears to be associated with a higher risk of recurrence and a higher risk of abandoning the planned VRT. Fertility and obstetrical outcomes post VRT are excellent.

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