Non-transferrin bound iron, cytokine activation and intracellular reactive oxygen species generation in hemodialysis patients receiving intravenous iron dextran or iron sucrose

Amy Barton Pai, Todd Conner, Charles R McQuade, Jonathan Olp, Paul Hicks
Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine 2011, 24 (4): 603-13
Intravenous (IV) iron supplementation is widely used to support erythropoeisis in hemodialysis patients. IV iron products are associated with oxidative stress that has been measured principally by circulating biomarkers such as products of lipid peroxidation. The pro-oxidant effects of IV iron are presumed to be due at least in part, by free or non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI). However, the effects of IV iron on intracellular redox status and downstream effectors is not known. This prospective, crossover study compared cytokine activation, reactive oxygen species generation and oxidative stress after single IV doses of iron sucrose and iron dextran. This was a prospective, open-label, crossover study. Ten patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis and four age and sex-matched healthy were assigned to receive 100 mg of each IV iron product over 5 min in random sequence with a 2 week washout between products. Subjects were fasted and fed a low iron diet in the General Clinical Research Center at the University of New Mexico. Serum and plasma samples for IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 and NTBI were obtained at baseline, 60 and 240 min after iron infusion. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated at the same time points and stained with fluorescent probes to identify intracellular reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) by flow cytometry. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by plasma F(2) isoprostane concentration. Mean ± SEM maximum serum NTBI values were significantly higher among patients receiving IS compared to ID (2.59 ± 0.31 and 1.0 ± 0.36 µM, respectively, P = 0.005 IS vs. ID) Mean ± SEM NTBI area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) was 3-fold higher after IS versus ID (202 ± 53 vs. 74 ± 23 µM*min/l, P = 0.04) in ESRD patients, indicating increased exposure to NTBI. IV iron administration was associated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines. Serum IL-6 concentrations increased most profoundly, with a 2.6 and 2.1 fold increase from baseline in ESRD patients given IS and ID, respectively (P < 0.05 compared to baseline). In healthy controls, serum IL-6 was undetectable at baseline and after IV iron administration. Most ESRD patients had increased intracellular ROS generation, however, there was no difference between ID and IS. Only one healthy control had increased ROS generation post IV iron. All healthy controls experienced a loss of Δψm (100% with IS and 50% with ID). ESRD patients also had loss of Δψm with a nadir at 240 min. IS administration was associated with higher maximum serum NTBI concentrations compared to ID, however, the both compounds produced similar ROS generation and cytokine activation that was more pronounced among ESRD patients. The effect of IV iron-induced ROS production on pivotal signaling pathways needs to be explored.

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