Epitope analysis of GAD65 autoantibodies in adult-onset type 1 diabetes and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults with thyroid autoimmunity

Ping Jin, Gan Huang, Jian Lin, Shuoming Luo, Zhiguang Zhou
Acta Diabetologica 2011, 48 (2): 149-55
This study aimed at determining which GAD65 epitopes the spontaneous antibodies recognized and whether the epitope-specific GAD65Abs could be associated with the development of thyroid autoimmunity in Chinese adult-onset type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). The levels of GAD65Abs and their reactivities to N-terminal (GAD65-N), middle (GAD65-M) and C-terminal (GAD65-C) regions of human GAD65 were measured by radioligand assay in 109 patients with adult-onset T1DM and 107 with LADA. TPOAb, TGAb and the genotypes of HLADQA1-DQB1 were determined. The percentage of LADA patients with GAD65-NAb was significantly higher than that of adult-onset T1DM patients (21.5% vs. 11.0%, P = 0.037), but LADA patients with GAD65-CAb less than T1DM patients (47.7% vs. 70.6%, P = 0.001). LADA patients with both GAD65-M and GAD65-CAb (GAD65-M + CAb) appeared to be at higher risk for the development of thyroid autoimmunity, lower serum C-peptide level and the requirement for insulin therapy (P < 0.05). More frequent T1DM patients with HLADQA1*03-DQB1*0303 developed GAD65-M + CAb (55.8% vs. 35.1%, P = 0.008). In comparison with those without thyroid autoimmunity, more frequent T1DM patients and LADA patients with thyroid autoimmunity displayed GAD65-M + CAbs (44.0% vs.16.9% and 53.1% vs. 17.3%, P = 0.002 and <0.001, respectively) with a diagnostic specificity of 83.1 or 82.7% for thyroid autoimmunity, respectively. LADA patients with GAD65-M + CAbs had clinical features similar to T1DM patients. Adult-onset T1DM and LADA patients with GAD65-M + CAbs are at an increased risk for the development of thyroid autoimmunity.

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