Histonedeacetylase inhibitor Oxamflatin increase HIV-1 transcription by inducing histone modification in latently infected cells

Hao Yin, Yuhao Zhang, Xin Zhou, Huanzhang Zhu
Molecular Biology Reports 2011, 38 (8): 5071-8
HIV-1 latency represents a major problem in the eradication of HIV-1 in infected individuals treated with highly active anti-retroviral therapy. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibits HIV-1 gene expression and virus production and may contribute to quiescence of HIV-1 within resting CD4+ T cells. Here, we evaluated the effect of Oxamflatin, a class I HDAC inhibitor, on the epigenetic change at HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) and the induction of the latent viruses in the latency Jurkat T cell line. Flow cytometry assay showed that Oxamflatin activate HIV-1 gene expression in these latently infected cells by 2-17 fold than background levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays further revealed that Oxamflatin increase the acetylation level of histone H3 and histone H4 at the nucleosome 1(nuc-1) site of the HIV-1 LTR compared to mock treatment. We also found that Oxamflatin had a synergization with prostratin, or 5-azacytidine or tumor necrosis factor-α to activate the HIV-1 promoter. Taken together, our results suggest that the histone acetylation plays an important role in regulating HIV-1 LTR gene expression, and Oxamflatin has potential as drug candidates as antilatency therapies.

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