JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Secreted proteins from adipose tissue and skeletal muscle - adipokines, myokines and adipose/muscle cross-talk

Paul Trayhurn, Christian A Drevon, Jürgen Eckel
Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry 2011, 117 (2): 47-56
21158485
White adipose tissue and skeletal muscle are the largest organs in the body and both are composed of distinct cell types. The signature cell of adipose tissue is the adipocyte while myocytes are the defining cell of skeletal muscle. White adipocytes are major secretory cells and this is increasingly apparent also for myocytes. Both cells secrete a range of bioactive proteins, generally termed adipokines in the case of adipocytes and myokines for muscle cells. There has, however, been some confusion over nomenclature and we suggest that the name myokine is restricted to a protein that is secreted from myocytes, while the term adipokine should be used to describe all proteins secreted from any type of adipocyte (white, brown or brite). These definitions specifically exclude proteins secreted from other cells within adipose tissue and muscle, including macrophages. There is some commonality between the myokines and adipokines in that both groups include inflammation-related proteins - for example, IL-6, Il-8 and MCP-1. Adipokines and myokines appear to be involved in local autocrine/paracrine interactions within adipose tissue and muscle, respectively. They are also involved in an endocrine cross-talk with other tissues, including between adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, and this may be bi-directional. For example, IL-6, secreted from myocytes may stimulate lipolysis in adipose tissue, while adipocyte-derived IL-6 may induce insulin resistance in muscle.

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