JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long-term non-progressors: the viral, genetic and immunological basis for disease non-progression.

A small subset of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected, therapy-naive individuals--referred to as long-term non-progressors (LTNPs)--maintain a favourable course of infection, often being asymptomatic for many years with high CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell counts (>500 cells  μl(-1)) and low plasma HIV-RNA levels (<10 ,000 copies ml(-1)). Research in the field has undergone considerable development in recent years and LTNPs offer a piece of the puzzle in understanding the ways that persons can naturally control HIV-1 infection. Their method of control is based on viral, genetic and immunological components. With respect to virological features, genomic sequencing has shown that some LTNPs are infected with attenuated strains of HIV-1 and harbour mutant nef, vpr, vif or rev genes that contain single nuclear polymorphisms, or less frequently, large deletions, in conserved domains. Studies have also shown that some LTNPs have unique genetic advantages, including heterozygosity for the CCR5-Δ32 polymorphism, and have been found with excitatory mutations that upregulate the production of the chemokines that competitively inhibit HIV-1 binding to CCR5 or CXCR4. Lastly, immunological factors are crucial for providing LTNPs with a natural form of control, the most important being robust HIV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses that correlate with lower viral loads. Many LTNPs carry the HLA class I B57 allele that enhances presentation of antigenic peptides on the surface of infected CD4(+) cells to cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. For these reasons, LTNPs serve as an ideal model for HIV-1 vaccine development due to their natural control of HIV-1 infection.

Full text links

We have located links that may give you full text access.
Can't access the paper?
Try logging in through your university/institutional subscription. For a smoother one-click institutional access experience, please use our mobile app.

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Mobile app image

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2024 by WebMD LLC.
This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.

By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Your Privacy Choices Toggle icon

You can now claim free CME credits for this literature searchClaim now

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app