Furano-1,2-naphthoquinone inhibits EGFR signaling associated with G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells

J C Su, K L Lin, C M Chien, C H Tseng, Y L Chen, L S Chang, S R Lin
Cell Biochemistry and Function 2010 December 2, 28 (8): 695-705
Furano-1,2-naphthoquinone (FNQ), prepared from 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and chloroacetaldehyde in an efficient one-pot reaction, exhibits an anti-carcinogenic effect. FNQ exerted anti-proliferative activity with the G(2)/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells. FNQ-induced G(2)/M arrest was correlated with a marked decrease in the expression levels of cyclin A and cyclin B, and their activating partner cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk) 1 and 2 with concomitant induction of p53, p21, and p27. FNQ-induced apoptosis was accompanied with Bax up-regulation and the down-regulation of Bcl-2, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), and survivin, resulting in cytochrome c release and sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Western blot analysis revealed that FNQ suppressed EGFR phosphorylation and JAK2, STAT3, and STAT5 activation, but increased in activation of p38 MAPK and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) stress signal. The combined treatment of FNQ with AG1478 (a specific EGFR inhibitor) significantly enhanced the G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis, and also led to up-regulation in Bax, p53, p21, p27, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and down-regulation of Bcl-2, XIAP, survivin, cyclin A, cyclin B, Cdk1, and Cdk2 in A549 cells. These findings suggest that FNQ-mediated cytotoxicity of A549 cell related with the G(2)/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via inactivation of EGFR-mediated signaling pathway.

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