Apical and marginal bone alterations around implants in maxillary sinus augmentation grafted with autogenous bone or bovine bone material and simultaneous or delayed dental implant positioning

Ludovico Sbordone, Liran Levin, Franco Guidetti, Carolina Sbordone, Ari Glikman, Devorah Schwartz-Arad
Clinical Oral Implants Research 2011, 22 (5): 485-91

OBJECTIVE: A re-pneumatization phenomenon was recorded in sinuses grafted with different materials. The specific aims of this paper were to assess the dental implant survival rate and the behavior of marginal and apical bone remodeling around dental implants placed following sinus augmentation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on consecutive patients treated in two surgical centers. Different surgical techniques were adopted for sinus augmentation: simultaneous or delayed dental implant insertion with bovine bone-material augmentation or autologous bone grafting (chin and iliac crest). Survival rates were recorded for the overall number of implants (patients of group A). Apical and marginal bone levels (ABL and MBL, respectively) were radiographically measured, and statistical analysis was performed in implants of a subgroup of patients (group B).

RESULTS: A total of 282 dental implants were positioned. Recorded cumulative survival rates (CSRs) were 95.6% and 100% for autogenous and bovine bone material, respectively, while CSRs at 2-year follow-up for immediate and delayed procedures were 99.3% and 96.5%. For the subgroup B, 57 sinus augmentation procedures were performed in 39 patients, with the positioning of 154 implants. Generally, the apical- and marginal-bone resorption of the bovine bone-material group was less than that of the autogenous group. The differences between the ABL values of the bovine bone-material and iliac-crest groups were statistically significant at 1 year, whereas this significance disappeared at the 2-year follow-up; tests showed that a statistical difference was recorded in the bovine bone-material group between the 1- and 2-year follow-ups. With regard to MBL comparisons between simultaneous and delayed implantation, the differences maintained their significance at the 2-year follow-up also.

CONCLUSIONS: Differences regarding apical bone alteration between autogenous bone from the iliac crest and bovine bone material at the 1- and 2-year follow-ups, as well as in the bovine bone-material group between the 1- and 2-year follow-ups, attested to slower but more prolonged physiologic bone remodeling in the bovine-graft-material group than in the autogenous-bone group. The MBL analysis showed that remodeling in the delayed implant group demonstrated a greater resorption in the cervical portion than was seen in the simultaneous implant group.

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