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Comparison of levonorgestrel intrauterine system versus hysterectomy on efficacy and quality of life in patients with adenomyosis.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) with hysterectomy in patients with adenomyosis and to study the effects of both treatments on quality of life (QOL).

DESIGN: Prospective randomized clinical trial.

SETTING: Women's health teaching and research hospital.

PATIENT(S): Eighty-six patients (43 patients for each group) were enrolled, but only 75 women continued the study.

INTERVENTION(S): Women interpreted as having adenomyosis on transvaginal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were assigned to receive either LNG-IUS or hysterectomy.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Clinical measures of menstrual bleeding as number of used pads/day during menstruation, hemoglobin levels, and health-related QOL variables were assessed. Each woman was followed up for 1 year after treatment.

RESULT(S): LNG-IUS increased the hemoglobin levels at the sixth month and first year of the treatment to the comparable levels with hysterectomy. When pretreatment and post-treatment QOL scores of groups were compared, three of the five mean domain scores (physical, environmental, environmental-TR) were increased in patients treated with hysterectomy, while in patients managed with LNG-IUS, all five mean domain scores were increased.

CONCLUSION(S): It seems that LNG-IUS demonstrates significant and comparable improvements in hemoglobin levels to hysterectomy in treating adenomyosis-associated menorrhagia during the first year. Although both treatments lead to improvements in health-related QOL, LNG-IUS seems to have superior effects on psychological and social life. It may be a promising alternative therapy to hysterectomy.

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