S-100B is superior to NSE, BDNF and GFAP in predicting outcome of resuscitation from cardiac arrest with hypothermia treatment

Erik Mörtberg, Henrik Zetterberg, Johanna Nordmark, Kaj Blennow, Lars Rosengren, Sten Rubertsson
Resuscitation 2011, 82 (1): 26-31

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a pilot study to evaluate the blood levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neuron specific enolase (NSE) and S-100B as prognostic markers for neurological outcome 6 months after hypothermia treatment following resuscitation from cardiac arrest.

DESIGN: Prospective observational study.

SETTING: One intensive care unit at Uppsala University Hospital.

PATIENTS: Thirty-one unconscious patients resuscitated after cardiac arrest.


MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Unconscious patients after cardiac arrest with restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) were treated with mild hypothermia to 32-34°C for 26h. Time from cardiac arrest to target temperature was measured. Blood samples were collected at intervals of 1-108h after ROSC. Neurological outcome was assessed with Glasgow-Pittsburgh cerebral performance category (CPC) scale at discharge from intensive care and again 6 months later, when 15/31 patients were alive, of whom 14 had a good outcome (CPC 1-2). Among the predictive biomarkers, S-100B at 24h after ROSC was the best, predicting poor outcome (CPC 3-5) with a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 100%. NSE at 96h after ROSC predicted poor outcome, with sensitivity of 57% and specificity of 93%. BDNF and GFAP levels did not predict outcome. The time from cardiac arrest to target temperature was shorter for those with poor outcome.

CONCLUSIONS: The blood concentration of S-100B at 24h after ROSC is highly predictive of outcome in patients treated with mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest.

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