Opposite functions of HIF-α isoforms in VEGF induction by TGF-β1 under non-hypoxic conditions

K S Chae, M J Kang, J H Lee, B K Ryu, M G Lee, N G Her, T K Ha, J Han, Y K Kim, S G Chi
Oncogene 2011 March 10, 30 (10): 1213-28
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 has biphasic functions in prostate tumorigenesis, having a growth-inhibitory effect in the early stages, but in the late stages promoting tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. We demonstrate here that tumor-producing TGF-β1 induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in prostate cancer cells, and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α has opposite functions in TGF-β1 regulation of VEGF expression under non-hypoxic conditions. The promoter response of VEGF to TGF-β1 was upregulated by the transfection of HIF-2α or siHIF-1α but downregulated by HIF-1α and siHIF-2α. Both HIF-1α and HIF-2α were induced by TGF-β1 at mRNA and protein levels, however, their nuclear translocation was differentially regulated by TGF-β1, suggesting its association with their opposite effects. VEGF induction by TGF-β1 occurred in a Smad3-dependent manner, and the Smad-binding element 2 (SBE2, -992 to -986) and hypoxia response element (-975 to -968) in the VEGF promoter were required for the promoter response to TGF-β1. Smad3 cooperated with HIF-2α in TGF-β1 activation of VEGF transcription and Smad3 binding to the SBE2 site was greatly impaired by knockdown of HIF-2α expression. Moreover, the VEGF promoter response to TGF-β1 was synergistically elevated by co-transfection of Smad3 and HIF-2α but attenuated by HIF-1α in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, TGF-β1 was found to increase the stability of VEGF transcript by facilitating the cytoplasmic translocation of a RNA-stabilizing factor HuR. Collectively, our data show that tumor-producing TGF-β1 induces VEGF at the both transcription and post-transcriptional levels through multiple routes including Smad3, HIF-2α and HuR. This study thus suggests that autocrine TGF-β1 production may contribute to tumor angiogenesis via HIF-2α signaling under non-hypoxic conditions, providing a selective growth advantage for prostate tumor cells.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"