Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in critically ill children with congenital heart disease: preliminary experience

Zaccaria Ricci, Stefano Morelli, Isabella Favia, Cristiana Garisto, Gianluca Brancaccio, Sergio Picardo
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 2012, 13 (1): e51-4

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate diagnostic and prognostic significance of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children with congenital heart disease.

DESIGN: Prospective observational study.

SETTING: Pediatric cardiac intensive care unit.

PATIENTS: Ten pediatric patients with congenital heart disease requiring venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for postoperative cardiorespiratory support were prospectively enrolled.


MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Five patients were successfully weaned from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and survived to intensive care unit discharge; five children died during extracorporeal therapy or within 12 hrs from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation stop. Continuous renal replacement therapy after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation start was indicated for three patients. When patients on continuous venovenous hemofiltration were compared with patients not on continuous venovenous hemofiltration, diuretic administration was lower (1.5 vs. 10 mg/kg/day), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation duration was longer (7 [range, 6-14]) vs. 4 [range, 3-8] days), and survival decreased from 60% (four of seven) to 33% (one of three). Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels were higher at the first extracorporeal membrane oxygenation day in patients who underwent continuous venovenous hemofiltration, 285 (range, 181-513) vs. 130 (range, 81-277) ng/mL, in patients who did not undergo continuous venovenous hemofiltration (p = .045). Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels remained higher among patients on continuous venovenous hemofiltration than others throughout the examined extracorporeal membrane oxygenation period (p = .0007), whereas creatinine levels tended to be equivalent between the two groups (p = .38). However, a trend toward increasing neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels was noticed also in patients not on continuous venovenous hemofiltration.

CONCLUSIONS: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels at the first extracorporeal membrane oxygenation day may have predictive value for continuous venovenous hemofiltration. During the course of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support, creatinine levels were normalized in patients with acute kidney injury undergoing continuous venovenous hemofiltration; in these patients, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels may provide further information on kidney injury.

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