Asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease in type 2 diabetes patients: a 10-year follow-up study of the utility of the ankle brachial index as a prognostic marker of cardiovascular disease

Magdalena Bundó, Laura Muñoz, Carmen Pérez, Juan José Montero, Núria Montellà, Pere Torán, Guillem Pera
Annals of Vascular Surgery 2010, 24 (8): 985-93

BACKGROUND: Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease, diagnosed only by the ankle brachial index (ABI), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) after a 10-year follow-up period in patients with type 2 diabetes.

METHODS: In 1996, the ankle brachial index was measured in 262 patients with type 2 diabetes. During the 10-year follow-up period (mean follow-up time, 7.7 years), all nonfatal cardiovascular events and mortality were recorded.

RESULTS: A total of 52 patients died during the follow-up time. The mortality of the patients with normal (0.91-1.24) and abnormal ABI (≤0.90) at the beginning of the study was 16.8% and 52.8%, respectively (p < 0.05). The incidence rate of fatal and nonfatal CVD was 26.9 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 20.7-37.3) for the patients with a normal baseline ABI and 81.9 (95% CI: 50.9-131.8) for those with an abnormal baseline ABI. An abnormal baseline ABI was associated with a greater risk of CVD (hazard ratio = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.27-4.22).

CONCLUSION: ABI values ≤0.9 in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and no history of intermittent vascular claudication or rest pain were associated with a higher risk of coronary or cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality.

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