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The Caenorhabditis elegans CDT-2 ubiquitin ligase is required for attenuation of EGFR signalling in vulva precursor cells

Gino B Poulin, Julie Ahringer
BMC Developmental Biology 2010 October 26, 10: 109
20977703

BACKGROUND: Attenuation of the EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) signalling cascade is crucial to control cell fate during development. A candidate-based RNAi approach in C. elegans identified CDT-2 as an attenuator of LET-23 (EGFR) signalling. Human CDT2 is a component of the conserved CDT2/CUL4/DDB1 ubiquitin ligase complex that plays a critical role in DNA replication and G2/M checkpoint. Within this complex, CDT2 is responsible for substrate recognition. This ubiquitin ligase complex has been shown in various organisms, including C. elegans, to target the replication-licensing factor CDT1, and the CDK inhibitor p21. However, no previous link to EGFR signalling has been identified.

RESULTS: We have characterised CDT-2's role during vulva development and found that it is a novel attenuator of LET-23 signalling. CDT-2 acts redundantly with negative modulators of LET-23 signalling and CDT-2 or CUL-4 downregulation causes persistent expression of the egl-17::cfp transgene, a marker of LET-23 signalling during vulva development. In addition, we show that CDT-2 physically interacts with SEM-5 (GRB2), a known negative modulator of LET-23 signalling that directly binds LET-23, and provide genetic evidence consistent with CDT-2 functioning at or downstream of LET-23. Interestingly, both SEM-5 and CDT-2 were identified independently in a screen for genes involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis in oocytes, suggesting that attenuation of LET-23 by CDT-2 might be through regulation of endocytosis.

CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we have shown that CDT-2 and CUL-4, members of the CUL-4/DDB-1/CDT-2 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex attenuate LET-23 signalling in vulval precursor cells. In future, it will be interesting to investigate the potential link to endocytosis and to determine whether other signalling pathways dependent on endocytosis, e.g. LIN-12 (Notch) could be regulated by this ubiquitin ligase complex. This work has uncovered a novel function for the CUL-4/DDB-1/CDT-2 E3 ligase that may be relevant for its mammalian oncogenic activity.

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