Hyperbilirubinemia syndromes (Gilbert-Meulengracht, Crigler-Najjar, Dubin-Johnson, and Rotor syndrome)

Christian P Strassburg
Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology 2010, 24 (5): 555-71
Hyperbilirubinemia is an important clinical sign that often indicates severe hepatobiliary disease of different etiologies. Inherited non-haemolytichyperbilirubinemic conditions include Dubin-Johnson, Rotor, and Gilbert-Meulengracht syndromes, which are important differential diagnoses indicating benign disease that require no immediate treatment. Dubin-Johnson and Rotor syndromes are rare, exhibit mixed direct and indirect hyperbilirubinemia as well as typical profiles or urinary coproporphyrin excretion. Gilbert-Meulengracht disease leads to unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia because of impaired glucuronidation activity, and is part of a spectrum of genetic variants also encompassing fatal Crigler-Najjar syndrome. Gilbert-Meulengracht syndrome can be diagnosed by clinical presentation, biochemistry and genotyping, and carries significance regarding the disposition towards drug-associated toxicity. In addition, the precise diagnosis of these inherited hyperbilirubinemic syndromes avoids unnecessary invasive procedures for suspected more severe hepatobiliary disease.

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