Tourette syndrome in children: an updated review

Jung-Chieh Du, Ting-Fang Chiu, Kun-Mei Lee, Hsin-Lin Wu, Ya-Chi Yang, Shu-Yeh Hsu, Chung-Shu Sun, Betau Hwang, James F Leckman
Pediatrics and Neonatology 2010, 51 (5): 255-64
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder in children characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics that fluctuate in severity and lasting for at least 1 year. Boys are more commonly affected than girls. Symptoms usually begin with simple motor or vocal tics which then evolve into more complex motor and vocal tics over time. Premonitory sensory urges are common in children over the age of 8 years, and these urges help distinguish tics from symptoms of other movement disorders. Common comorbidities of TS include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and learning difficulties. Several genes have been assessed as candidate genes for TS; environmental factors such as stress and streptococcal infections might also contribute to its etiology. The pathophysiology of TS mainly involves dysfunction of basal ganglia-related circuits and hyperactive dopaminergic innervations. A thorough history assessment and neurological examination are important for the correct diagnosis and differentiation from other movement disorders. Treatment for TS should focus on improving the patient's social functioning, minimizing the impairment from cormobid disorders, and controlling tics, if they are severe. Commonly used medications for TS include a2-adrenergic agonists and atypical neuroleptics. Habit reversal therapy is an effective option for TS, and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may be a promising approach for severe cases.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.