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Evolution in management of testicular seminoma: population-based outcomes with selective utilization of active therapies.

BACKGROUND: In this article, we report the evolution of treatment with increased use of active surveillance for stage I disease as well as risk-adapted chemotherapy for disseminated disease and associated outcomes of testicular seminoma in a contemporary population-based cohort.

METHODS: All patients with histologically confirmed seminoma referred from 1999 to 2008 to the British Columbia Cancer Agency or Providence Cancer Center were retrospectively reviewed. Both institutions manage 90% of testicular cancers in their respective area.

RESULTS: A total of 649 patients were included. Clinical stage (CS) distribution: CSI/II/III n=545/87/17. For CSI, there was a progressive and marked decrease in the utilization of prophylactic radiation (RT), and corresponding increase in the use of active surveillance. No deaths related to seminoma were reported in CSI patients. CSII or CSIII patients received RT or International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) risk-appropriate chemotherapy with 101 of 104 patients being in long-term remission and 3 patients dying from treatment complications. For the entire seminoma population, <1% of patients died of seminoma or treatment after a median follow-up of 47 months (range 2-130 months).

CONCLUSIONS: Progressive application of policies of active surveillance and earlier initiation of IGCCCG risk-adapted chemotherapy result in nearly universal control for all patients presenting with seminoma while reducing the burden of treatment.

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