This clinical report covers diagnosis and prevention of iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia in infants (both breastfed and formula fed) and toddlers from birth through 3 years of age. Results of recent basic research support the concerns that iron-deficiency anemia and iron deficiency without anemia during infancy and childhood can have long-lasting detrimental effects on neurodevelopment. Therefore, pediatricians and other health care providers should strive to eliminate iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia. Appropriate iron intakes for infants and toddlers as well as methods for screening for iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia are presented.
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