Integration of cap analysis of gene expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis on array reveals genome-wide androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer cells

K Takayama, S Tsutsumi, S Katayama, T Okayama, K Horie-Inoue, K Ikeda, T Urano, C Kawazu, A Hasegawa, K Ikeo, T Gojyobori, Y Ouchi, Y Hayashizaki, H Aburatani, S Inoue
Oncogene 2011 February 3, 30 (5): 619-30
The androgen receptor (AR) is a critical transcriptional factor that contributes to the development and the progression of prostate cancer (PCa) by regulating the transcription of various target genes. Genome-wide screening of androgen target genes provides useful information to understand a global view of AR-mediated gene network in PCa. In this study, we performed 5'-cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) to determine androgen-regulated transcription start sites (TSSs) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) on array (ChIP-chip) analysis to identify AR binding sites (ARBSs) and histone H3 acetylated (AcH3) sites in the human genome. CAGE determined 13 110 distinct, androgen-regulated TSSs (P<0.01), and ChIP-chip analysis identified 2872 androgen-dependent ARBSs (P<1e-5) and 25 945 AcH3 sites (P<1e-4). Both androgen-regulated coding genes and noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) were determined as androgen target genes. Besides prototypic androgen-regulated TSSs in annotated gene promoter regions, there are many androgen-dependent TSSs that are widely distributed throughout the genome, including those in antisense (AS) direction of RefSeq genes. Several pairs of sense/antisense promoters were newly identified within single RefSeq gene regions. The integration of CAGE and ChIP-chip analyses successfully identified a cluster of androgen-inducible miRNAs, as exemplified by the miR-125b-2 cluster on chromosome 21. Notably, the number of androgen-upregulated genes was larger in LNCaP cells treated with R1881 for 24 h than for 6 h, and the percentage of androgen-upregulated genes accompanied with adjacent ARBSs was also much higher in cells treated with R1881 for 24 h than 6 h. On the basis of the Oncomine database, the majority of androgen-upregulated genes containing adjacent ARBSs and CAGE tag clusters in our study were previously confirmed as androgen target genes in PCa. The integrated high-throughput genome analyses of CAGE and ChIP-chip provide useful information for elucidating the AR-mediated transcriptional network that contributes to the development and progression of PCa.

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