Radiographic preoperative templating of extra-offset cemented THA implants: how reliable is it and how does it affect survival?

F Bachour, E Marchetti, D Bocquet, L Vasseur, H Migaud, J Girard
Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR 2010, 96 (7): 760-8

INTRODUCTION: Securing femoral offset should in theory improve hip stability and abductor muscles moment arms. As problems arise mainly in case of originally increased offset (>40 mm), a range of extra-offset stems is available; the exact impact in terms of fixation, however, is not known.

HYPOTHESIS: Extra-offset stems should more reliably reestablish original femoral offsets exceeding 40 mm than standard femoral components, limiting instability risk without possible adverse effect on fixation.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the ability of five commonly available femoral stem designs to restitute offset exceeding 40 mm, and to assess function and cement fixation at a minimum 6 years' follow-up in a stem conceived to reproduce such offset.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: A continuous series of 74 total hip replacements (THR) in hips with increased (>40 mm) femoral offset was studied. All underwent preoperative X-ray templating on Imagika™ software to assess offset reproduction by five models of stem: four standard, and one Lubinus SP2™ extra-offset stem. A retrospective clinical and X-ray study was conducted with a minimum 6 years' follow-up on the Lubinus SP2™ 117° stems used to try to reproduce offset in the 74 THRs.

RESULTS: Apart from the increased (>40 mm) offset, the cervicodiaphyseal angle was consistently <135°, <130° in 60 femurs (81%) and <125° in 45 (60%). Planning showed the four standard stems to induce (>5mm femoral offset reduction in 50-83% of cases, versus only 25% with the Lubinus SP2™ 117°). All 74 hips received Lubinus SP2™ 117° stems: at a mean 78 months FU (range, 70-94 mo), their mean Postel-Merle d'Aubigné score was 17±1.8 (range, 13-18). Five of the 74 THRs underwent surgical revision: three cases of loosening, in which the stem was replaced, and two of instability, without change of stem. Loosening was not related to offset reproduction quality; two of the three cases were due to initial cementing defect, and the third occurred in a femur with previous history of two osteotomies. There were four cases of dislocation (5.4%: two primary, which were not operated on, and two recurrent, managed by acetabular revision), despite good reproduction of the preoperative offset in three of the four cases. Mean 7-year implant survivorship was 95.1% (±4.8).

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The anatomic form of the Lubinus™ SP2 117° should in theory provide a uniform cement mantle. Survivorship, however, is less good than for regular offset versions (126° or 135°). On the other hand, it does reproduce anatomy in case of >40mm offset, providing extra offset of more than 51mm. The slightly shorter survivorship requires more long-term surveillance.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, retrospective study.

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