[Acute inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy and membranous glomerulonephritis following Epbstein-Barr virus primary infection in a 12-year-old girl]

P Meyer, S Soëte, P Raynaud, V Henry, D Morin, M Rodière, F Rivier, A Roubertie
Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie 2010, 17 (11): 1535-9
Acute inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy, or Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), is characterized by peripheral nerve demyelination, which leads to rapidly progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. It is a prototype of postinfectious autoimmune disease, whose pathophysiology is well described in the forms provoked by certain bacteria (molecular mimicry with Campylobacter jejuni), but remains unclear for the forms related to other organisms (cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and other herpes group viruses, Mycoplasma pneumoniae). Glomerular lesions can be associated with the neurological symptoms and have also been described after various infections, independently of any signs of polyradiculoneuropathy. We report the observation of a 12-year-old girl who presented with Guillain-Barré syndrome with facial diplegia, ataxia, and intracranial hypertension following Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) primary infection. During the course of the neurological disease, membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) was diagnosed. The neurological impairment was regressive within 6 months after intravenous immunoglobulin treatment followed by intravenous then oral corticosteroid administration. Viremia remained high more than 6 months after the onset of symptoms. Glomerulopathy progressed independently and finally required immunosuppressant medication with cyclosporine. EBV might be the factor that triggered the autoimmune disorders, as previously reported for systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis in children. To the best of our knowledge, this association of 3 conditions (GBS, MGN, and EBV primary infection) has never been reported in the literature.

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