Impact of periodontitis on the diabetes-related inflammatory status

Roberta Santos Tunes, Maria Cristina Foss-Freitas, Getulio da Rocha Nogueira-Filho
Canadian Dental Association Journal 2010, 76: a35
Wide-ranging activation of the innate immune system causing chronic low-grade inflammation is closely involved not only in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications, through an ongoing cytokine-induced acute-phase response, but also in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, whereby cytokines play a central role in the host's response to the periodontal biofilm. Although there is extensive knowledge about the pathways through which diabetes affects periodontal status, less is known about the impact of periodontal diseases on the diabetes-related inflammatory state. This review attempts to explain the immunobiological connection between periodontal diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus, exploring the mechanisms through which periodontal infection can contribute to the low-grade general inflammation associated with diabetes (thus aggravating insulin resistance) and discussing the impact of periodontal treatment on glycemic control in people living with both diabetes and periodontal disease.

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