Simulated elliptical bioprosthetic valve deformation: implications for asymmetric transcatheter valve deployment

Wei Sun, Kewei Li, Eric Sirois
Journal of Biomechanics 2010 December 1, 43 (16): 3085-90
The asymmetric, elliptical shape of a transcatheter aortic valve (TAV), after implantation into a calcified aortic root, has been clinically observed. However, the impact of elliptical TAV configuration on TAV leaflet stress and strain distribution and valve regurgitation is largely unknown. In this study, we developed computational models of elliptical TAVs based on a thin pericardial bioprosthetic valve model recently developed. Finite element and computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed to investigate TAV leaflet structural deformation and central backflow leakage, and compared with those of a nominal symmetric TAV. From the results, we found that for a distorted TAV with an elliptical eccentricity of 0.68, the peak stress increased significantly by 143% compared with the nominal circular TAV. When the eccentricity of an elliptical TAV was larger than 0.5, a central backflow leakage was likely to occur. Also, deployment of a TAV with a major calcified region perpendicular to leaflet coaptation line was likely to cause a larger valve leakage. In conclusion, the computational models of elliptical TAVs developed in this study could improve our understanding of the biomechanics involved in a TAV with an elliptical configuration and facilitate optimal design of next-generation TAV devices.

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