Interleukin family member ST2 and mortality in acute dyspnoea

T Socrates, C deFilippi, T Reichlin, R Twerenbold, T Breidhardt, M Noveanu, M Potocki, M Reiter, N Arenja, C Heinisch, J Meissner, C Jaeger, R Christenson, C Mueller
Journal of Internal Medicine 2010, 268 (5): 493-500

OBJECTIVES: The study objective was to investigate the prognostic utility and patient-specific characteristics of ST2 (suppression of tumorigenicity 2), assessed with a novel sensitive assay.

BACKGROUND: Suppression of tumorigenicity 2 signalling has been shown to be associated with death in cardiac and pulmonary diseases.

DESIGN/SUBJECTS: In an international multicentre cohort design, we prospectively enrolled 1091 patients presenting with acute dyspnoea to the emergency department (ED). ST2 was measured in a blinded fashion using a novel assay and compared to B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and NT-proBNP. The primary end-point was mortality within 30 days and 1 year. The prognostic value of ST2 was evaluated in comparison and in addition to BNP and NT-proBNP.

RESULTS: Suppression of tumorigenicity 2 concentrations was higher amongst decedents than among survivors (median 85 vs. 43 U mL⁻¹, P < 0.001) and also higher in patients with impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) when compared with preserved LVEF (P < 0.001). In receiver operator characteristics analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) for ST2, BNP and NT-proBNP to predict 30-day and 1-year mortality were 0.76, 0.63 and 0.71, and 0.72, 0.71 and 0.73, respectively. The combinations of ST2 with BNP or NT-proBNP improved prediction of mortality provided by BNP or NT-proBNP alone. After multivariable adjustment, ST2 values above the median (50 U mL⁻¹) significantly predicted 1-year mortality (HR 2.3, P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: In patients presenting to the ED with acute dyspnoea, ST2 is a strong and independent predictor of 30-day and 1-year mortality and might improve risk stratification already provided by BNP or NT-proBNP.

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