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Retroperitoneal hematoma in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization.

OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively study demographic, clinical and hospital outcomes in patients who developed RPH following cardiac catheterization.

METHODS: Charts of patients with RPH from cardiac catheterization, between January 1, 2000 and July 30, 2005 were reviewed and compared with two control groups (Grp-I, 90 patients with local groin complications and Grp-II, 98 patients with no bleeding complications).

RESULTS: 31 cases of RPH (0.13%) were identified with 84% females. Most common presentation was hypotension (87%) and hemoglobin drop (96%). CT scan was the diagnostic modality in 93% cases. The mean body surface area in RPH group (1.77 ± .23) was significantly lower than in control group I (1.93 ± .28) and II (1.98 ± .27). The use of larger sheath size was significantly higher in the RPH group (61.3%) than control groups I (26.7%) and II (21.4%). Left groin access was significantly more in RPH group (16.1%) and control group I (17.8) than control group II (0%). The use of antiplatelets and anticoagulants were significantly higher in the RPH group. 13% of patients with RPH were treated surgically. The average hospital stay was 8.6 days, 4.5 days and 3.5 days and mortality 12.9%, 3.3% and 1% in RPH group, control group I and II respectively.

CONCLUSION: Our study is the second largest series of RPH following cardiac catheterization and predicts female gender, large sheath size, left groin access and low body surface area as risk factors for RPH.

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