Hyperaldosteronism in Klotho-deficient mice

Stephanie S Fischer, Daniela S Kempe, Christina B Leibrock, Rexhep Rexhepaj, Balasaheb Siraskar, Krishna M Boini, Teresa F Ackermann, Michael Föller, Berthold Hocher, Kevin P Rosenblatt, Makoto Kuro-O, Florian Lang
American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology 2010, 299 (5): F1171-7
Klotho is a membrane protein participating in the inhibitory effect of FGF23 on the formation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)]. It participates in the regulation of renal tubular phosphate reabsorption and stimulates renal tubular Ca(2+) reabsorption. Klotho hypomorphic mice (klotho(hm)) suffer from severe growth deficit, rapid aging, and early death, events largely reversed by a vitamin D-deficient diet. The present study explored the role of Klotho deficiency in mineral and electrolyte metabolism. To this end, klotho(hm) mice and wild-type mice (klotho(+/+)) were subjected to a normal (D(+)) or vitamin D-deficient (D(-)) diet or to a vitamin D-deficient diet for 4 wk and then to a normal diet (D(-/+)). At the age of 8 wk, body weight was significantly lower in klotho(hm)D(+) mice than in klotho(+/+)D(+) mice, klotho(hm)D(-) mice, and klotho(hm)D(-/+) mice. Plasma concentrations of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3,) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), antidiuretic hormone (ADH), and aldosterone were significantly higher in klotho(hm)D(+) mice than in klotho(+/+)D(+) mice. Plasma volume was significantly smaller in klotho(hm)D(-/+) mice, and plasma urea, Ca(2+), phosphate and Na(+), but not K(+) concentrations were significantly higher in klotho(hm)D(+) mice than in klotho(+/+)D(+) mice. The differences were partially abrogated by a vitamin D-deficient diet. Moreover, the hyperaldosteronism was partially reversed by Ca(2+)-deficient diet. Ussing chamber experiments revealed a marked increase in amiloride-sensitive current across the colonic epithelium, pointing to enhanced epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity. A salt-deficient diet tended to decrease and a salt-rich diet significantly increased the life span of klotho(hm)D(+) mice. In conclusion, the present observation disclose that the excessive formation of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in Klotho-deficient mice results in extracellular volume depletion, which significantly contributes to the shortening of life span.

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