RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
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Impact of baseline renal function on the efficacy and safety of aliskiren added to losartan in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.

Diabetes Care 2010 November
OBJECTIVE: Proteinuric diabetic patients with reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are at high risk of renal and cardiovascular disease progression and treatment-related adverse events. This post hoc analysis assessed the efficacy and safety of aliskiren added to the maximal recommended dose of losartan according to baseline estimated GFR (eGFR) (stage 1-3 chronic kidney disease [CKD]).

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the Aliskiren in the Evaluation of Proteinuria in Diabetes (AVOID) study, 599 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy received 6 months of aliskiren (150 mg daily titrated to 300 mg daily after 3 months) or placebo added to 100 mg losartan and optimal antihypertensive therapy. Exclusion criteria included eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and serum potassium>5.1 mmol/l.

RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar between treatment groups in all CKD stages. The antiproteinuric effects of aliskiren were consistent across CKD stages (19, 22, and 18% reduction). In the stage 3 CKD group, baseline serum creatinine levels were equal, but renal dysfunction, prespecified as a postrandomization serum creatinine elevation>176.8 μmol/l (2.0 mg/dl) occurred more frequently in the placebo group (29.2 vs. 13.6%, P=0.032). Serum potassium elevations>5.5 mmol/l (based on a single measurement) were more frequent with aliskiren (22.5 vs. 13.6%) in stage 3 CKD. Adverse event rates were similar between treatments, irrespective of CKD stage.

CONCLUSIONS: Aliskiren added to losartan reduced albuminuria and renal dysfunction and was well tolerated, except for hyperkalemia (stage 3), independent of baseline CKD stage in patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and nephropathy.

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