Transcatheter aortic valve implantation for severe aortic stenosis-a new paradigm for multidisciplinary intervention: a prospective cohort study

Rafal Dworakowski, Philip A MacCarthy, Mark Monaghan, Simon Redwood, Ahmed El-Gamel, Christopher Young, Vinayat Bapat, Jane Hancock, Karen Wilson, Beth Brickham, Olaf Wendler, Martyn R Thomas
American Heart Journal 2010, 160 (2): 237-43

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an alternative treatment option for patients with aortic stenosis deemed high risk or unsuitable for aortic valve replacement. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of TAVI in elderly patients, the delivery of this technology with a multidisciplinary approach, and the use of traditional surgical scoring systems.

METHODS: One hundred fifty-one consecutive patients (mean age 82.6 +/- 7.3 years) with severe aortic stenosis underwent TAVI with the Edwards Lifesciences (Irvine, CA) Sapien bioprosthesis using the transapical (n = 84; 56%) or transfemoral (n = 67; 44%) approach from August 2007 to September 2009 at King's Health Partners, London, United Kingdom. We analyzed procedural outcome, complications, functional status, and midterm outcome of patients.

RESULTS: The multidisciplinary team comprised interventional cardiologists, cardiothoracic surgeons, imaging specialists, cardiac anesthetists, and specialist nurses. Seventy percent of patients were in New York Heart Association class III/IV, and logistic EuroSCORE was 21.6 +/- 11.9. Procedural success was achieved in 98%. Postoperative complications included stroke (6%), complete atrioventricular block (5.3%), renal failure requiring hemofiltration (9.3%), and vascular injury (8.6%). Overall 30-day mortality was 9.9% (n = 15). The logistic EuroSCORE was a predictor of short-term mortality (logistic regression model, P < .05). Thirty-day mortality post-TAVI for patients with logistic EuroSCORE <20, 20 to 40, and >40 was 5.4%, 13.2%, and 22.2%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a feasible treatment option in this patient group with promising short/medium-term results. Renal failure is the commonest short-term complication, and the incidence of vascular complications remains high. Risk prediction/case selection remains challenging, and a multidisciplinary team approach appears to be helpful in appropriate patient selection.

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