Analysis of complications following augmentation with cancellous block allografts

Gavriel Chaushu, Ofer Mardinger, Michael Peleg, Oded Ghelfan, Joseph Nissan
Journal of Periodontology 2010, 81 (12): 1759-64

BACKGROUND: Bone grafting may be associated with soft and hard tissue complications. Recipient site complications encountered using cancellous block allografts for ridge augmentation are analyzed.

METHODS: A total of 101 consecutive patients (62 females and 39 males; mean age 44 ± 17 years) were treated with implant-supported restoration of 137 severe atrophic alveolar ridges augmented with cancellous bone-block allografts. Alveolar ridge deficiency locations were classified as anterior maxilla (n = 58); posterior maxilla (n = 32 sinuses); posterior mandible (n = 32); and anterior mandible (n = 15). A total of 271 rough-surface implants were placed. Recipient site complications associated with block grafting (infection, membrane exposure, incision line opening, perforation of mucosa over the grafted bone, partial graft failure, total graft failure, and implant failure) were recorded.

RESULTS: Partial and total bone-block graft failure occurred in 10 (7%) and 11 (8%) of 137 augmented sites, respectively. Implant failure rate was 12 (4.4%) of 271. Soft tissue complications included membrane exposure (42 [30.7%] of 137); incision line opening (41 [30%] of 137); and perforation of the mucosa over the grafted bone (19 [14%] of 137). Infection of the grafted site occurred in 18 (13%) of 137 bone blocks. Alveolar ridge deficiency location had a statistically significant effect on the outcome of recipient site complications. More complications were noted in the mandible compared to the maxilla. Age and gender had no statistically significant effect.

CONCLUSIONS: Failures caused by complications were rarely noted in association with cancellous block grafting. The incidence of complications in the mandible was significantly higher. Soft tissue complications do not necessarily result in total loss of cancellous block allograft.

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